12th Biology Short Long Question in English

Class 12th Biology VVI Objective Subjective Question in English Strategies For Enhancement of Food Production Chapter


9. Strategies For Enhancement of Food Production 


1. If your family owned a dairy farm, what measures would you undertake to improve the quality and quantity of milk production? Enumurate any six essentials of good effective dairy farm management practices.

Ans.-Dairy farm management includes all those process, that help in improvement and production of milk. Better shelter, shady place and proper place as animal shelter is important aspect of dairy farm management. It aims on not only better production but also caters the good health of animals. A good dairy farm has following aspects :

(i) Animals or cattles should be given clean, hygenic, airy and proper ventilated place to live. 1989

(ii) Air should be sufficient in day time. 

(iii) All farm animals should be kept away from heat, cold, train and other animals.

(iv) Sunlight must be at good amount in animal place.

(v) In dairy farm, there must be arrangement of sufficient place for animals to move freely.

(vi) There should be no water logging inside the farm.

(vii) Inclined floor should be there to flush dung and other excreta.

(viii) Animal hygeine must be maintained.

(ix) There should be regular check up of all farm animals by veterinary doctor.

Milk Yield per Cow : Milk production depends upon breed of dairy farm animal. A good breed of cow gives enough milk, disease resistance and long life. Foreign breed of cow or hybrid breed of cow, gives more milk than Indian breed of cow.


2. Briefly describe various steps involved in plant breeding.

Ans.-Plant breeding programme is highly organised programme running by government organisation and commercial companies in all over the world. Steps involved in new genetic breed formation are :

(i) Collection of Variability : Genetic variability is the root of any breeding programme. In many crops pre-existing genetic variability is available from wild relatives of the crop. Collection and preservation of all the different wild varieties, species and relatives of the cultivated species. Species is a pre requisite for effective exploitation of natural gases available in the populations.

The entire collection having all the diverse alleles for all genes in a given crop is called Germplasm collection.

(ii) Evaluation and selection of parents : The germplasm is evaluated so as to identify plants with desirable combination of characters. The selected plants are multiplied and used in the process of hybridisation. Purelines are created wherever desirable and possible.

(iii) Cross hybridisation among the selected parents : The desired characters have very often to be combined from two a ctent plants (parents), for example high protein quality of parent may need to be combined with disease resistance other parent. This is possible by cross hybridising the two parents to produce hybrids possible by cross hybridising at the two parents to produce hybrids that genetically combine the desired character in one plant.

(iv) Selection and testing of super recombinant : This step consists of selecting, among the progeny of the hybrids, those plants that have the desired character combination. The selection process is crucial to the success of the breeding 10 objective and requires careful scientific evaluation of the progeny. This step yields plants that are superior to both of the parents. These are self pollinated for several generations till they reach a state of uniformity, so that the characters will not segregate in the progeny.

(v) Testing, Release and Commercialisation of new cultivars : The newly selected lines are evaluated for their yield and other agronomic traits of quality, disease resistance, etc. This evaluation is done by growing these in the research fields and recording their performance under ideal fertiliser application irrigation and other crop management practices. The evaluation in research fields is followed by testing the materials in farmer’s fields, for at least three growing seasons at several locations in the country, representing all the agroclimatic zones, where the crop is usually grown. The material is evaluated in comparison to the best available local crop cultivar. 


3. Write in brief about poultry farm management.

Ans.-Poultry is the class of domesticated fowl (birds) used for food or for their eggs. They typically include chicken and ducks and sometimes turkey and geese. The word poultry is often used to refer to the meat of only these birds, but in a more general sense it may refer to the meat of other birds too. Selection of disease free and suitable breeds, proper and safe farm conditions, proper feed and water, and hygiene and health care are important components of poultry farm management.


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