12th Biology Short Long Question in English

Class 12th Biology VVI Objective Subjective Question in English Biotechnology And Its Applications Chapter


12. Biotechnology And Its Applications 


1. What is DNA probes ?

Ans.- Probe is a fragment of DNA of variable length (usually 100–1000 bases long) which can be radioactively labelled. It can then be used in DNA or RNA samples to detect the presence of nucleotide sequences that are complementary to the sequence in the probe. Probe helps in detection of repeat expansions within specific genes. They are helpful in disease diagnosis, pollutants in food, separating genes and examination of microbes.


2. What is Bt cotton?

Ans.- Bt cotton is a genetically modified organism or genetically modified pest resistant plant cotton variety, which produces hot an insecticide to bollworm. Strain of the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis produce Bt toxin, which is harmful to different insects. Bt toxins are insecticidal to the larvae of moths and butterflies, beetles, cotton bollworms. The gene coding for Bt toxin has been inserted into cotton as a transgene, causing it to produce this natural insecticide in its tissues. When insects attack and eat the cotton plant the cry toxins are dissolved due to the high pH level of the insect’s stomach.


3. What do you mean by molecular Diagnosis?

Ans.- Molecular diagnostics is a collection of techniques used out to analyse biological markers in the genome and proteome. Effective treatment for disease a proper diagnosis is needed. Traditional diagnostic methods such as blood test, serum test or wine test are not able to give understanding of diseases. So Recombinant DNA technology, ELISA Test, PCR are used for diagnosis of disease. There are combinely called Molecular diagnosis.


4. Describe the types of bio diversity.

Ans. : There are three types of bio-diversity :

(i) Genetic Diversity : Genetic diversity is related to variations of genes within species. The variations may be in different variants of sane genes (alleles), in entire genes or in chromosomal structures.

(ii) Species diversity : It is related to the variety in the nuber and richness of the species within a region and is measured at the level of ‘species’.

Ex.: Tiger, Lion, Leopard belong to the same genus Panthera but they all differ at the species level.

(iii) Ecological diversity : It is related to the different types of ecosystem or habitats :

Eg. : Terrestrial and aquation ecosystems.


5. what do you understand by tissue culture ? Illustrate its any two advantages.

Ans. : The technique of tissue culture was first suggested by Haberlandt (1902). The plant tissue culture is the technique of in vitro maintenance and growth of plant cells, tissues and organs on a suitable artificial culture medium under controlled environmental conditions. An excised fragment of tissue or plant part used for raising a culture is called explant. The explant should be pathogen free. It is treated with antimicrobial chemicals like dilute hypochlorite. Culture medium contains nutrients required for growth and development ofexplants. The medium has inorganic salts, certain vitamins, 2-4% sucrose, Amino acid glycine, growth regulators with or without the use of nutrient rich yeast extract or coconut milk or Banana pulp. Growth regulators include Auxin and Cytokinin, required for cell growth, cell division and morphogenesis.


6. Mention any two applications of Gel-Electrophoresis in biotechnology. 

Ans. : (i) In this technique charged molecules are separated under the influence of an electrical field. The molecules separate according to size through the pores of agarose gel.  (ii) DNA finger printing/cloning of rDNA.


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