12th Biology Short Long Type Question Microbes In Human Welfare Chapter in English
10. Microbes In Human Welfare
1. Microbes can be used to decrease the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Explain how this can be accomplished.
Ans.- Crops plants have to be given protection by killing or removing pathogens and pests with the help different chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Chemical pesticides are highly problematic and poisonous to human kind. They kill even useful organisms, harm human beings and animals, pollute soil and water, fruits, vegetables and crop plants.
Therefore instead of trying to eradicate pests and pathogens through chemicals, it is better to use biological agents for controlling them. Here pests and pathogens are not eradicated but kept at manageable levels by a system of checks and balances as operating in ecosystem. The natural method of pest and pathogen control involving use of viruses, bacteria and other insects (which are their natural predators and pests) in called biocontrol or biological control for example, Lady bird beethe feeds on aphids while Dragonflies prey upon mosquitoes. Free living fungus Trichoderma found in root ecosystem, exerts biocontrol over several plant pathogens. Baculoviruses are useful in controlling many insects and other arthropods. They are species specific biopesticides such as Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is soil bacterium. Spores of this bacterium possess the insecticidal cry protein. This Bt protects from pest that destroy cotton plants.
A number of free living bacteria and cyanobacteria, are used as biofertilizers, that increases the fertility of soil for example Anabaena, Nostoc, Aulosira, Rhizobium, Azospirillum. They are potent biofertilizers.
2. Write an account of four benefits of transgenic animals for human welfare.
Ans. : Transgenic animals are produced by introducing the technique of genetic engineering. In which foreign genes change the host cell genetically.
Some benefits of transgenic animals are :
(i) Normal physiology and development
(ii) Study of diseases
(iii) Biological product
(iv) Immunisatioin safety and
(v) Chemical safety test.
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